Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid. It is further classified by outcome into: death, ongoing health problems and no ongoing health problems. Using the term neardrowning to refer to those who survive is no longer recommended.
· Drowning is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional injury death worldwide, accounting for 7% of all injury-related deaths.
· There are an estimated 372 000 annual drowning deaths worldwide.
· Global estimates may significantly underestimate the actual public health problem related to drowning.
· Children, males and individuals with increased access to water are most at risk of drowning.
· lower socioeconomic status, being a member of an ethnic minority, lack of higher education, and rural populations all tend to be associated, although this association can vary across countries;
· infants left unsupervised or alone with another child around water;
· alcohol use, near or in the water;
· medical conditions, such as epilepsy;
· tourists unfamiliar with local water risks and features;
· Someone is drowning
· Notify a lifeguard, if one is close. If not, ask someone to call 911.
· If you are alone, follow the steps below.
· Take the person out of the water.
· Place your ear next to the person's mouth and nose. Do you feel air on your cheek?
· Look to see if the person's chest is moving.
· Check the person's pulse for 10 seconds.
Carefully place person on back.
· For an adult or child, place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest at the nipple line. You can also push with one hand on top of the other. For an infant, place two fingers on the breastbone.
· For an adult or child, press down about 2 inches. Make sure not to press on ribs. For an infant, press down about 1 and 1/2 inches. Make sure not to press on the end of the breastbone.
· Do 30 chest compressions, at the rate of 100 per minute or more. Let the chest rise completely between pushes.
· Check to see if the person has started breathing.
Note that these instructions are not meant to replace CPR training. Classes are available through the American Red Cross, local hospitals, and other organizations.
· If you've been trained in CPR, you can now open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin.
· Pinch the nose of the victim closed. Take a normal breath, cover the victim's mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and then give 2 one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise.
· Give 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions.
· Continue this cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until the person starts breathing or emergency help arrives.
· Among the good things about residential swimming pools is the fact that so much research has been done on pool safety. One outgrowth of that research has been the development of a vast number of products and devices that aim to keep your pool safe.
· There are fences designed with self-closing, self-locking gates and rigid covers that slide over the pool like horizontal garage doors. There are even several electronic alarms of various designs. One is worn on the child's wrist like a watch and sounds upon contact with water. Others sound an alarm when movement in pool water is detected.
· "Nothing is foolproof when it comes to protecting children from drowning in a pool," says Mark Ross, a spokesman for the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). "That's why we recommend that pool owners provide layers of protection."
· Children between the ages of 1 and 4 are most at risk for fatal and nonfatal drowning, according to the CDC, which tracks drowning deaths. CDC data show that in children most drownings occur in residential swimming pools. In adults, most drownings occur in natural waters.
· But the majority of child drownings occur when children get into the pool on their own. The CDC found that "most young children who drowned in pools were last seen in the home, had been out of sight less than five minutes, and were in the care of one or both parents at home at the time."
The first and most important layer is constant, adult supervision during swim times. Other protective measures are important, too, says Ross. Here are some of their recommendations based on extensive product testing:
· The pool should be surrounded by a fence at least 4 feet tall.
Teaching a child to swim would seem to add a further layer of drowning protection. But there is no evidence that swimming ability reduces a child's chance of drowning. In fact, many of the drowned children in the CDC statistics knew how to swim.
"Learning to swim at the earliest reasonable age is a good idea," said Brewster, of the Lifesaving Association. "But kids who drown are often under 4 years old, and even if they can swim," they aren't strong enough to get themselves up and out of the pool in time.
Brewster adds that if you have a pool, "you should have a rule that the child wears a Coast Guard-approved life jacket whenever the pool is being used."
In addition, he advises that you hire a lifeguard whenever you have a pool party.
"Maintaining safety for swimmers and non-swimmers requires constant vigilance, and there is just too much going on at a party for any of the participants to provide that."
The following recommendations can help you protect your child from drowning hazards:1
· Don't leave babies and young children alone in the bathtub or aswimming or wading pool. If a baby slips or rolls and lands facedown, he or she may not be able to turn over. Bathing seats or flotation devices may be used, but they don't protect against drowning and aren't a substitute for your attention.
· Don't leave babies and young children alone around filled buckets, such as 5-gallon buckets used for cleaning. Empty buckets after each use, and keep them out of children's reach. Buckets have tall, straight sides, which make it very hard for infants and young children to escape if they have fallen in.
· Leave toilet lids down. Keep young children out of the bathroom without your direct supervision. Make sure your toddler knows that the toilet isn't a toy. Toilets are drowning hazards, especially for children younger than 3. An older baby or young child can fall headfirst into the water and not be able to climb back out. Consider placing a latch on the bathroom door, out of reach of young children.
· Empty all liquid containers immediately after use. Keep all empty containers out of reach of young children and babies. Don't leave empty containers in the yard or around the house. They can accumulate water and become a drowning hazard.
· Empty coolers immediately after use, and keep lids closed. Store out of children's reach.
· Watch children closely outdoors, especially where wells, open postholes, and irrigation or drainage ditches are nearby. Fill holes and install fences or other barriers to protect your child. Make sure pools are fenced off and have covers that lock. Don't let a child out of your sight while you are doing yard work or other outdoor activities.
· Never let your child swim in any fast-moving water.